Ever wondered how Goa became a part of India, one of the vibrant tourist destinations in India we bring about the history of this state in the next few mins.
Portuguese were the first to establish the colonies in India before the British East India Company and Dutch. Goa was under the control of the Portuguese from 1505-1961. It was the capital of Portuguese colonies of south Asia and that’s why the Portuguese had a direct attachment with Goa.
Malacca (Malaysia now), Philippines, Macao(China) and some parts of Japan which were under the Portuguese was directly governed from Goa.
Colonies established by Portuguese in India
-Cannanore(Kannur now 1501)
Before sneaking into the operation Vijay how Goa Became a Part Of India?? Here’s the brief History of Goa
Albuquerque in 1510 conquered Goa from Adil Shah (the Sultan of Bijapur), after this Goa became the base of Albuquerque and started his conquest of Malacca in 1511 and Hormuz in 1515.
He made Goa a colony with a naval base developed in this area, unlike Cochin which was just a small Portuguese settlement at that time.
In 40-50 years after that Goa became the capital of the Portuguese settlement in South Asia which included Malacca, Persian Gulf, East Timor, Macau in China and some trade centres of Japan.
The journey of How Goa became a part of India…
In the 1920s when the national freedom struggle was on its full monty protest against the Portuguese government started in Goa because of the suppression by the govt.
1928 Goan National Congress was formed (which was the state front of Indian National Congress) and other organisations which demanded civil liberties, freedom of Press as the censorship of the press during the Portuguese rule was way too high.
The agitation against the Portuguese rule was brutally suppressed by the Govt, cases of firing were reported, leaders of political parties were jailed, some of them were deported to Portugal or were sent to Angola Jail in Africa.
After 1947 when the entire focus shifted to India Pakistan separation and resettlement of migrants from Pakistan. The intensity of the freedom movement in Goa became little silent, around the 1950s the Nehru govt looked into the situation and started their negotiation with the Portuguese French Government.
In 1954 Pondicherry became free from Dutch rule after continuous negotiations with the Indian Government without any military actions but the Portuguese insisted to stayed on.
They rebuffed it and said the Portuguese government doesn’t consider Goa as a colony but as part of Portugal which is physically far away from the mainland and consider Goans as their citizen of Portugals.
They also stated about the future of Goan Catholics if Goa became a part of India in spite of having 60 per cent populations Hindus over there.
Hindus in Goa during the Portuguese rule were oppressed by the Catholics during their reign and many of them were even converted to Catholics by the missionaries.
In 1953 India ended all diplomatic relationships with Portuguese after all their negotiations with the Government failed and the embassy in Lisbon was shut down.
Dadra Nagar Haveli became free from Portuguese in 1954
Many didn’t like the Indian Government Gandhian ahimsa approach and wanted revolutionary freedom in Goa.
Azad Gomantak Dal and The United Front Of Goans took control and Dadra Nagar Haveli got emancipated from the Portuguese Rule in 1954.
Azad Gomantak Dal carried series of Blast on Police stations military post during the 1950s.
Goa Liberation Army also carried some small level blasts but played a vital role in defending the bridges as the Portuguese policies were to destroy the bridges so that the military movement could be obstructed as Goa has number rivers and without the bridges, any fast movement within the state could stop.
Satyagrahi and the Economic Blockade In Goa
In 15 the August 1955 Satyagrahi movement started in Goa for its Independence from the Portuguese Rule which was oppressed by the Govt and 30 satyagrahis were killed by the firing on the orders of Portuguese govt.
after that Nehru government started an Economic Blockade of Goa an Daman and Diu and Portuguese govt had to even import necessary items from Europe.
VK Krishna Menon who was the defence minister that time, also known for his fast-paced Diplomacy made a valiant statement in the international Media that India had not “abjured the use of Force and would take military action in Goa if needed“.
The Triggering moment
On 24 November 1961, a passenger Boat “Sabarmati” travelling towards Kochi was fired upon by the Portuguese groups from the Portuguese-held Island Anjadiv and the chief engineer of the boat was injured and a passenger was killed.
Operation Vijay(17-19 December 1961)
After the Anjadiv incident, military action was initiated and the Army, Navy and Air Force all three were involved in the operation.
Attacks by the Air force was there on Marmagao base and heavy attacks on the Portuguese territory took place from 3 sides on Goa ending the 451 years of Portuguese colonial rule and Goa became a part of India along with Daman and Diu.
Around 23 Indians and 30 Portuguese were killed in the operation and this way Goa became a part of India.
Goa celebrates 2 Independence one on August 15 and the second one on 19th December which is known as Goa Liberation Day.
There was criticism raised in foreign media about this operation and the non-violence Gandhian approach not followed by India. Even the US , UK condemned this action by India and supported Portugal and try to raise this issue in the UN security council but the Soviet-union supported India and used the veto.
Otherwise, there would have been sanctioned imposed on India at that time.
In 1963, the Parliament passed the 12th amendment act in constitution Goa and Daman and Diu became the union territories of India.
In 1987 Goa became a separate state while Daman and Diu still remained as the Union territory.
This action was condemned by fully by the Portuguese so they broke diplomatic relations with India after 1974 when Portugal became Democratic relations between the 2 nations smoothen and only in 1992 Head of the state from Portugal visited Goa.
Endnote:-Some may say the process and steps taken by the Indian govt weren’t right but Goa had been an integral part of India and Goans also felt a sense of pride when Goa became a part of India. So it was the need of the hour at that time for Indian Govt for the freedom of Goa.
Also read out:-How Sikkim merged into India
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